School and library lighting
1. School lighting requirements
The purpose of school lighting for school education visual work to provide a good lighting environment to meet the visual requirements of students and teachers to protect eyesight and improve teaching and learning efficiency.
The school is dominated by daytime teaching and should also take into account evening classes and self-study activities. In addition to natural lighting classrooms, but also must set artificial lighting. These lighting equipment by the district to switch control, making it effectively compensate for the lack of natural lighting. In sunny weather, due to direct sunlight into the classroom, in order to protect eyesight, curtains or venetian blinds should be provided.
In addition to the school lighting should meet the visual requirements of operations, but also to be safe, reliable, easy to maintain and overhaul, and with the environment in harmony.
2. Ordinary classroom lighting
(1) illumination standard
School housing illumination standards, according to Table 5-1 selected. However, classrooms for adults evening classes, colleges and universities in ordinary classrooms, the illumination standards can be increased by one level. Classroom blackboard for vertical illumination, the vertical average illumination of not less than 200LX, and above the average illumination in the classroom, the uniformity of 0.7 or more.
Table 5-1 school room illumination standards
Note: The table illumination standards from GBJ99-86 primary and secondary school building design standards, the table takes the value of the median. Ordinary classrooms for colleges and universities illumination value of 150-300lx, uniformity of not less than 0.7, from JGJ / T16-92 civil electrical design code. However, according to the International Commission on Illumination lighting standards, illumination than the above criteria more than doubled.
(2) light source
Classroom lighting recommended GUIHAI T5 or T8 straight tube fluorescent lamps, its high luminous efficiency, good light color, low brightness, easy to meet the requirements of illumination uniformity.
(3) the choice of lamps
It is advisable to use a GUIHAI open-type lighting fixture with a protection angle of not less than 75%, or the GUIHAI bat wing, which reduces the light intensity distribution in the reflective and glare areas of the screen and reduces glare, especially light The interference of curtain reflection increases the light intensity distribution in the effective area and greatly increases the effective utilization rate of the light output of the lamp.
Should not be used with high brightness or full mirror control light class of lamps. Ordinary classroom area is not large, should adopt GUIHAI single tube or double tube fluorescent lamps, it is easier to achieve uniform illumination and energy saving.
(4) lighting layout
The layout of the lamps depends on the size of the classroom and the arrangement direction of the desks. Generally, the long axis direction of the lamps is arranged in parallel with the sight direction of the students, which has the following advantages:
a) uniform illumination, light curtain light reflection;
b) small angle of protection of the lamp can reduce direct glare;
c) Set the same light and natural light projection direction, as a secondary lighting effect, and can avoid the shadow;
d) The orientation of the lamp is the same as the direction of sight of the student, the sense of spatial direction is good, and it is easy to focus on the blackboard;
e) The brightness distribution should be uniform and reasonable. Lighting up lighting effects have a certain impact. In order to ensure the uniformity, the maximum height-to-height ratio (L / H) should be greater than the maximum allowable height-to-height ratio of the lamps used (A-A, B-B should be checked separately). If you can not meet the above conditions, adjust the cloth lamp, or change the lamp to meet.
(5) blackboard lighting
If only the general lighting classroom settings, the vertical blackboard will be very low illumination, uniformity is poor. Therefore, the blackboard should be set to special lighting to lighting, lighting requirements are:
A. It is advisable to use special lamps with asymmetrical light intensity distribution. The protection angle of the lamps on the student side should be greater than 40 °, so that the students do not feel direct glare.
B. Blackboard lighting should not cause direct glare to the teacher, nor should it reflect glare to students. In the design, lighting should be reasonable to determine the height and the blackboard wall distance.